|This study examined the impact of C. freundii KWCSAg antigens alone and in combination with propolis nanoparticles on humoral (IgG) and cellular immune responses in rats. The ELISA IL4 and IgG , Delayed Type Hypersensitivity-Skin Test (DTH), and phagocytosis activity tests were used in the study. A total of 45 rats were separated into five groups, each with 9 rats: The first group received a 1000 μg\ml dose of KWCSAg-CF. The second group received an injection of (1000 μg/ml) KWCSAg-CF antigen along with 30mg/ml propolis AgNPs. The third group received an injection of (1000 μg/ml) KWCSAg-CF antigen along with 10 mg/ml propolis AgNPs. The fourth group had 30 mg/ml propolis AgNPs. One millilitre of PBS (pH 7.2) was subcutaneously injected into the fifth group (the negative control group). Rats received booster injections of the same antigens after 14 days. Blood was taken for the purpose of detecting immunoglobulin (IgG) and interleukin (IL-4) at days 21, 28, 32, 46, 50, and 60 following injection. The second groups, when compared to other groups, showed the most significant rise in IL-4 and IgG concentration, followed by the third group, the first group, and the fourth group, when compared to the negative control group(5th group).|
In all immunized groups, the DTH test result demonstrated an increase in the means of induration with significant differences (P 0.05) of the concentrated antigen after 24 hours and 48 hours, and subsequently a decrease after 72 hours as compared to the negative control group. At 48 hours after the concentrated antigen was indurated, the second group, however, displayed the most meaningful increase in diameter.